The Brazilian Federation is the "indissoluble union" of three distinct political entities: the States, the Municipalities and the Federal District. The Federation is set on five fundamental principles: sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labour and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism.

The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial under a checks and balances system), is formally established by the Constitution.

The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state/Federal District spheres.

The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system. The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term, with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government.

Brazil’s democratic constitution, adopted in 1988, ushered in an era of economic reform and more responsible monetary policy that broke the back of chronic hyperinflation. President Dilma Rousseff, two-term Workers’ Party President Luiz Inacio “Lula” da Silva’s successor, became Brazil’s first female president in 2011.



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